A macroscopic and stereological imaging dataset of Pleuronectes platessa ovaries.

A macroscopic and stereological imaging dataset of Pleuronectes platessa ovaries.

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A macroscopic and stereological imaging dataset of Pleuronectes platessa ovaries.

Sci Data. 2020 May 29;7(1):165

Authors: Sauger C, Quinquis J, Kellner K, Heude-Berthelin C, Lepoittevin M, Elie N, Dubroca L

Abstract
The North Sea plaice, Pleuronectes platessa (Linnaeus, 1758), is a commonly studied commercial flatfish with poorly known ovarian histology. The following dataset is a collection of female plaice gonad images and their corresponding histological slides, collected during a complete season of the plaice’s reproduction cycle. Stereology was used to determine the percentage of different structures found throughout the ovaries. Inter-agent calibrations were accomplished in order to harmonize the stereological readings, and were based on a comprehensive reading protocol and histological lexicon that were specifically written for the plaice’s ovaries. The distribution and homogeneity of the different cell types found throughout the ovaries were also evaluated. This dataset can be used to automate the stereological reading process (through statistical learning methods for example) or to objectively determine the plaice’s maturity phase, and link that information to either macroscopic measurements or through image analysis of the full ovaries.

PMID: 32471976 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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SORLA Expression in Synaptic Plexiform Layers of Mouse Retina.

SORLA Expression in Synaptic Plexiform Layers of Mouse Retina.

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SORLA Expression in Synaptic Plexiform Layers of Mouse Retina.

Mol Neurobiol. 2020 May 29;:

Authors: Monti G, Jensen ML, Mehmedbasic A, Jørgensen MM, Holm IE, Barkholt P, Zole E, Vægter CB, Vorum H, Nyengaard JR, Andersen OM

Abstract
Sorting protein-related receptor containing LDLR class A repeats (SORLA; also known as LR11) exerts intraneuronal trafficking functions in the central nervous system. Recently, involvement of SORLA in retinogenesis was proposed, but no studies have examined yet in detail the expression pattern of this sorting receptor in the retina. Here, we provide a spatio-temporal characterization of SORL1 mRNA and its translational product SORLA in the postnatal mouse retina. Using stereological analysis, we confirmed previous studies showing that receptor depletion in knockout mice significantly reduces the number of cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL), suggesting that functional SORLA expression is essential for the development of this retinal strata. qPCR and Western blot analyses showed that SORL1/SORLA expression peaks at postnatal day 15, just after eye opening. Interestingly, we found that transcripts are somatically located in several neuronal populations residing in the INL and the ganglion cell layer, whereas SORLA protein is also present in the synaptic plexiform layers. In line with receptor expression in dendritic terminals, we found delayed stratification of the inner plexiform layer in knockout mice, indicating an involvement of SORLA in neuronal connectivity. Altogether, these data suggest a novel role of SORLA in synaptogenesis. Receptor dysfunctions may be implicated in morphological and functional impairments of retinal inner layer formation associated with eye disorders.

PMID: 32472518 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Hesperidin Ameliorates Anxiety-Depressive-Like Behavior in 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease by Regulating Striatal Cytokine and Neurotrophic Factors Levels and Dopaminergic Innervation Loss in the Striatum of Mice.

Hesperidin Ameliorates Anxiety-Depressive-Like Behavior in 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease by Regulating Striatal Cytokine and Neurotrophic Factors Levels and Dopaminergic Innervation Loss in the Striatum of Mice.

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Hesperidin Ameliorates Anxiety-Depressive-Like Behavior in 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson’s Disease by Regulating Striatal Cytokine and Neurotrophic Factors Levels and Dopaminergic Innervation Loss in the Striatum of Mice.

Mol Neurobiol. 2020 May 26;:

Authors: Antunes MS, Cattelan Souza L, Ladd FVL, Ladd AABL, Moreira AL, Bortolotto VC, Silva MRP, Araújo SM, Prigol M, Nogueira CW, Boeira SP

Abstract
The mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of hesperidin in a murine model of PD are not fully elucidated. The current study was carried out to investigate the ability of hesperidin in modulating proinflammatory cytokines, neurotrophic factors, and neuronal recovery in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four groups: (I) sham/vehicle, (II) sham/hesperidin, (III) 6-OHDA/vehicle, and (IV) 6-OHDA/hesperidin. Mice received a unilateral intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA and treated with hesperidin (50 mg/kg; per oral) for 28 days. After hesperidin treatment, mice were submitted to behavioral tests and had the striatum removed for neurochemical assays. Our results demonstrated that oral treatment with hesperidin ameliorated the anxiety-related and depressive-like behaviors in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice (p < 0.05). It also attenuated the striatal levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-gamma, interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, and interleukin-6 and increased the levels of neurotrophic factors, including neurotrophin-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and nerve growth factor in the striatum of 6-OHDA mice (p < 0.05). Hesperidin treatment was also capable to increase striatal levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and protects against the impairment of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study indicated that hesperidin exerts anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effect against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity through the modulation of cytokine production, neurotrophic factors levels, and dopaminergic innervation in the striatum.

PMID: 32458386 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Prenatal nicotine exposure in mice induces sex-dependent anxiety-like behavior, cognitive deficits, hyperactivity, and changes in the expression of glutamate receptor associated-genes in the prefrontal cortex.

Prenatal nicotine exposure in mice induces sex-dependent anxiety-like behavior, cognitive deficits, hyperactivity, and changes in the expression of glutamate receptor associated-genes in the prefrontal cortex.

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Prenatal nicotine exposure in mice induces sex-dependent anxiety-like behavior, cognitive deficits, hyperactivity, and changes in the expression of glutamate receptor associated-genes in the prefrontal cortex.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2020 May 18;:172951

Authors: Polli FS, Scharff MB, Ipsen TH, Aznar S, Kohlmeier KA, Andreasen JT

Abstract
In rodents, prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) has been associated with increased risk for development of cognitive and emotional disturbances, but the findings are somewhat conflicting. Lack of behavioral alterations following PNE could be due to the variety of methods available for nicotine delivery, exposure time and species used, with inbred strains being mostly employed. Such differences suggest the need to investigate the behavioral phenotype in each PNE model available if we are to find models with enhanced translational value. In this study, we assessed sex-based effects of PNE on ADHD-related behaviors in mice and on the levels of mRNA coding for glutamate receptor subunits within the prefrontal cortex in the outbred NMRI mice exposed to nicotine via maternal drinking water during gestation. Cotinine levels were assessed in newborn pups. Behaviors related to anxiety, compulsivity, working memory, and locomotion were evaluated in both sexes of young adult offspring using the elevated zero maze, marble burying, spontaneous alternation behavior, and locomotor activity tests. Expression of mRNA coding for different glutamate receptors subunits within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured using RT-qPCR. Cotinine levels in the serum of newborns confirmed fetal nicotine exposure. Both male and female offspring showed ADHD-like behaviors, such as deficit in the SAB test and hyperactivity. In addition, PNE male mice displayed anxiety- and compulsive-like behaviors, effects that were absent in female offspring. Finally, PNE reduced the expression of GluN1-, GluN2B-, and mGluR2-related genes within the PFC of male offspring. PNE in NMRI mice induced sex-dependent behavioral changes, which parallels clinical findings following maternal cigarette smoke exposure. Alterations detected in PFC mRNA glutamate receptor proteins could contribute to the abnormal behavioral responses observed in males, but other signaling pathways or brain regions are likely involved in the behavioral susceptibility of PNE individuals.

PMID: 32439454 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Structural changes in the brain of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis compared to controls: a MRI-based stereological study.

Structural changes in the brain of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis compared to controls: a MRI-based stereological study.

Structural changes in the brain of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis compared to controls: a MRI-based stereological study.

Ir J Med Sci. 2020 May 20;:

Authors: Heidari Z, Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb H, Moghtaderi A, Ramazanpour N, Gorgich EAC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system characterized by demyelination, inflammation, gliosis, and axonal loss. Nowadays, increasing scientific reports have focused on neurodegenerative processes and structural changes of the disease underlying pathogenesis.
AIM: The aim of this study is a structural analysis of brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) comparing with normal individuals.
METHODS: This case-control study was carried out on MRIs of 20 patients with RRMS and 20 healthy controls in Zahedan, Iran. MR images with 4-mm slice thickness and 0.5-mm intervals in three anatomical planes (coronal, sagittal, axial) were acquired. Then, stereological parameters, including volume and volume density of different parts of the brain, based on Cavalries’ point counting method were measured in both groups. Data analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U and Pearson’s correlation tests.
RESULTS: The results of the study showed that there were no significant differences in total brain, hemispheres, gray matter, and basal nuclei volume and volume density between the two groups (p ˃ 0.05). However, the left hemisphere, cerebellum, lateral ventricles, brainstem, corpus callosum, and white matter volume in RRMS patients were significantly lower than those in controls (p ˂ 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The findings showed that quantitative assessments based on stereological method on brain MRIs facilitate clarifying neuropathology of the disease. Also, it can be helpful as a simple index for following up the clinical situation and assessing therapeutic efficiency in MS patients. It may provide a precise treatment approach and justification of symptoms in patients with MS.

PMID: 32436171 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The effects of prenatal dexamethasone exposure and fructose challenge on pituitary-adrenocortical activity and anxiety-like behavior in female offspring.

The effects of prenatal dexamethasone exposure and fructose challenge on pituitary-adrenocortical activity and anxiety-like behavior in female offspring.

The effects of prenatal dexamethasone exposure and fructose challenge on pituitary-adrenocortical activity and anxiety-like behavior in female offspring.

Tissue Cell. 2020 Feb;62:101309

Authors: Manojlović-Stojanoski M, Nestorović N, Petković B, Balind SR, Ristić N, Trifunović S, Ajdžanović V, Filipović B, Šošić-Jurjević B, Milošević V

Abstract
Prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure could largely influence pituitary-adrenal activity and anxiety-like behavior in offspring. Our aim was to study the possible potentiating effect of moderate dose of fructose – common ingredient of today’s diet – on prenatal glucocorticoid treatment-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis changes. Pregnant female rats were treated with multiple dexamethasone (Dx) doses (3 x 0.5 mg/kg/b.m. Dx; 16th-18th gestational day). Half of female offspring from control and Dx treated dams were supplemented with 10% fructose solution, from weaning till adulthood. Immunohistochemistry, unbiased stereological evaluation and hormonal analysis are used to provide the morpho-functional state of pituitary and adrenal gland. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed using the light/dark box test and the elevated plus maze test. Prenatally Dx exposed females, with or without fructose consumption, had markedly reduced adrenocortical volume (p < 0.05) comparing to controls. Increased basal plasma ACTH level in these females (p < 0.05) maintained corticosterone concentration at control level produced by smaller adrenal glands. In parallel, anxiety-like behavior was shown by both tests used. In conclusion, prenatal Dx exposure cause negative psychophysiological outcome reflected in increased HPA axis activity and anxiety behavior in female offspring, while moderately increased fructose consumption failed to evoke any alteration or to potentiate effects of prenatal Dx exposure.

PMID: 32433017 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Double-label immunohistochemistry to assess labyrinth structure of the mouse placenta with stereology.

Double-label immunohistochemistry to assess labyrinth structure of the mouse placenta with stereology.

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Double-label immunohistochemistry to assess labyrinth structure of the mouse placenta with stereology.

Placenta. 2020 May;94:44-47

Authors: De Clercq K, Lopez-Tello J, Vriens J, Sferruzzi-Perri AN

Abstract
In mice, the labyrinth zone of the placenta exchanges nutrients and gases between mother and fetus. This placental zone is complex in structure and defects in its morphogenesis can compromise substrate exchange and thus, fetal growth and viability. Numerous mouse models involving genetic and environmental manipulation show abnormalities in labyrinth zone size. However, further structural analysis, normally undertaken using ultrathin resin sections, can pose practical constraints. Here, we validate the use of stereology on paraffin-embedded sections double-labelled for lectin and cytokeratin as a cheap, fast and robust alternative for analysing the structure of the mouse placental labyrinth.

PMID: 32421534 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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INCREASED AMYGDALA AND DECREASED HIPPOCAMPUS VOLUME AFTER SCHEDULE-INDUCED POLYDIPSIA IN HIGH DRINKER COMPULSIVE RATS.

INCREASED AMYGDALA AND DECREASED HIPPOCAMPUS VOLUME AFTER SCHEDULE-INDUCED POLYDIPSIA IN HIGH DRINKER COMPULSIVE RATS.

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INCREASED AMYGDALA AND DECREASED HIPPOCAMPUS VOLUME AFTER SCHEDULE-INDUCED POLYDIPSIA IN HIGH DRINKER COMPULSIVE RATS.

Behav Brain Res. 2020 May 14;:112592

Authors: Mora S, Merchán A, Aznar S, Flores P, Moreno M

Abstract
Fronto-limbic structures and serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2A) have been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of compulsive spectrum disorders. Schedule-Induced Polydipsia (SIP), characterized by the development of excessive drinking under intermittent food reinforcement schedules, is a valid preclinical model for studying the compulsive phenotype. In the present study, we explored the individual differences and effect of SIP in brain volume and 5-HT2A receptor binding in fronto-limbic structures in rats selected according to their compulsive drinking behavior. Rats were divided into high (HD) and low drinkers (LD) by SIP (20 sessions); later, we analyzed the brains of HD and LD selected rats, in two different conditions: non-re-exposure (NRE) or re-exposure to SIP (RE), with four groups: LD-NRE, LD-RE, HD-NRE and HD-RE. Histological analyses were carried out for volumetric (stereology) and receptor binding (autoradiography) in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex, dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. After SIP re-exposure, HD-RE showed an increased basolateral amygdala and a reduced hippocampus volume compared to HD-NRE rats, and also compared to LD-RE rats. No differences were found between HD and LD in NRE condition. Moreover, HD rats exhibit a lower 5-HT2A receptor binding in the basolateral amygdala, independently of SIP re-exposure, compared to LD rats. However, LD-RE showed a decreased 5-HT2A receptor binding in basolateral amygdala compared to LD-NRE. No differences were found in the remaining structures. These findings suggest that SIP might be differentially impacting HD and LD brains, pointing towards a possible explanation of how the latent vulnerability to compulsivity is triggered.

PMID: 32417273 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Resuscitation with macromolecular superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic polynitroxylated PEGylated hemoglobin offers neuroprotection in guinea pigs after traumatic brain injury combined with hemorrhage shock.

Resuscitation with macromolecular superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic polynitroxylated PEGylated hemoglobin offers neuroprotection in guinea pigs after traumatic brain injury combined with hemorrhage shock.

Resuscitation with macromolecular superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic polynitroxylated PEGylated hemoglobin offers neuroprotection in guinea pigs after traumatic brain injury combined with hemorrhage shock.

BMC Neurosci. 2020 May 13;21(1):22

Authors: Seno S, Wang J, Cao S, Saraswati M, Park S, Simoni J, Ma L, Soltys B, Hsia CJC, Koehler RC, Robertson CL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Polynitroxylated PEGylated hemoglobin (PNPH, aka SanFlow) possesses superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic activities that may directly protect the brain from oxidative stress. Stabilization of PNPH with bound carbon monoxide prevents methemoglobin formation during storage and permits it to serve as a carbon monoxide donor. We determined whether small volume transfusion of hyperoncotic PNPH is neuroprotective in a polytrauma model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock. Guinea pigs were used because, like humans, they do not synthesize their own ascorbic acid, which is important in reducing methemoglobin.
RESULTS: TBI was produced by controlled cortical impact and was followed by 20 mL/kg hemorrhage to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg. At 90 min, animals were resuscitated with 20 mL/kg lactated Ringer’s solution or 10 mL/kg PNPH. Resuscitation with PNPH significantly augmented the early recovery of MAP after hemorrhagic shock by 10-18 mmHg; whole blood methemoglobin was only 1% higher and carboxyhemoglobin was 2% higher. At 9 days of recovery, unbiased stereology analysis revealed that, compared to animals resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution, those treated with PNPH had significantly more viable neurons in the hippocampus CA1 + 2 region (59 ± 10% versus 87 ± 18% of sham and naïve mean value) and in the dentate gyrus (70 ± 21% versus 96 ± 24%; n = 12 per group).
CONCLUSION: PNPH may serve as a small-volume resuscitation fluid for polytrauma involving TBI and hemorrhagic shock. The neuroprotection afforded by PNPH seen in other species was sustained in a species without endogenous ascorbic acid synthesis, thereby supporting potential translatability for human use.

PMID: 32404052 [PubMed – in process]

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Structural plasticity and molecular markers in hippocampus of male rats after acute stress.

Structural plasticity and molecular markers in hippocampus of male rats after acute stress.

Structural plasticity and molecular markers in hippocampus of male rats after acute stress.

Neuroscience. 2020 May 11;:

Authors: Chen F, Polsinelli B, Nava N, Treccani G, Elfving B, Müller HK, Musazzi L, Popoli M, Nyengaard JR, Wegener G

Abstract
Stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and affects neuronal plasticity in different brain regions. We have previously found that acute foot-shock (FS) stress elicits fast and long-lasting functional and morphological remodeling of excitatory neurons in the prefrontal cortex, which were partly prevented by the pretreatment with antidepressants. Here we investigated, whether acute stress and pretreatment with desipramine (DMI) interfere in hippocampal dendritic remodeling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to acute FS-stress, followed by measurement of time-dependent (1, 7 and 14 days) structural plasticity (dendritic arborization, spine number and morphology) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and expression patterns of molecular markers implicated in neuronal plasticity. We found that acute stress significantly decreased spine number, dendritic length, and altered spine morphometric parameters at all time points evaluated after stress. This was paralleled by changes in the gene expression of Spinophilin and Cdc42, and protein expression of homer1. Pretreatment with DMI prevented the stress-induced dendritic atrophy and spine loss 14 days after acute FS. However, DMI treatment without stress differentially affected the expression patterns of spine-related genes and proteins . In conclusion, acute FS-stress and pretreatment with DMI significantly changed dendritic morphology, including number and morphology of spines, and the length of dendrites in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells as early as 1 day, and sustained up to 14 days after acute FS. The findings were paralleled by changes in gene and protein expression of actin binding and cytoskeletal proteins, Rho GTPases, and postsynaptic scaffolding proteins.

PMID: 32407976 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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